Kidney Stones: Symptoms, Causes, Types, and Treatments

Kidney Stones: Symptoms, Causes, Types, and Treatments

kidney stones

What Causes Kidney Stones and How to Prevent Them?

Kidney stones are a common disease that we all have heard about. But many people need to be made aware of the causes, types, and treatments of kidney stones. Kidney stones are hard mineral and salt deposits that form in the kidneys. Kidney stones are the main reason behind the severe pain and discomfort and may require medical intervention for treatment.

Here, we will explore kidney stone symptoms, causes, types, and various treatment options available.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

The signs and symptoms of people suffering from kidney stones are different from person to person. But some of the widespread signs and symptoms of kidney stones are given below:

  1. Intense pain in the back or side, often radiating to the lower abdomen and groin.
  2. Blood in the urine.
  3. Cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
  4. Persistent urge to urinate.
  5. Nausea and vomiting.
  6. Fever and chills.
Healthy & damaged kidneys

Causes of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are caused due to numerous factors. Some of the factors that are responsible for causing and deposition of kidney stones are: 

  1. Dehydration: When there isn’t enough water in the body, the concentration of urine can occur, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones. 
  2. Diet: When you include oxalate-rich foods such as spinach, beets, and chocolate very often or highly in your diet or include high salt, high sugar, and high protein foods can cause kidney stone formation.
  3. Family history: The chances of developing a kidney stone increase if someone in your family has had kidney stones.
  4. Medical conditions: Other risk factors for the formation of kidney stones are Urinary tract infections, gout, and inflammatory bowel diseases. 
  5. Medications: Some medications, such as diuretics – used for standard treatment of high blood pressure and antacids – commonly used to counter acidity contain calcium, which may increase the likelihood of stone formation.

Types of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones can be classified into four different types. They are classified based on the basis of stones and the causes of kidney stones like an infection. The different types of kidney stones are given below: 

  1. Calcium stones: They are formed from calcium oxalate and are the most commonly formed kidney stones found in a large number of cases.
  2. Struvite stones: Usually associated with urinary tract infections.
  3. Uric acid stones: Formed when excessive amounts of uric acid are present in the urine.
  4. Cystine stones: Occurs in people with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria.
healthy dietary Habits

Treatment for Kidney Stones

A lot of factors are taken into consideration for the treatment of kidney stones. For example, for determining the method of kidney stones treatment, various factors like size, location, and severity of the symptoms are considered. 

The most common treatment options that are generally applied are: 

  1. Small stones that do not cause any severe symptoms may be monitored for spontaneous passage by increasing fluid intake and pain management.
  2. Certain medications can help dissolve or prevent the formation of specific types of kidney stones.
  3. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy is a non-invasive procedure that uses sound waves to break the stones into smaller pieces for easier passage.
  4. A thin tube is inserted into the ureter to remove or damage the stones. For larger stones, a minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedure may be performed to remove or break them.
  5. In rare cases where other methods are unsuccessful, or the stone is too large, open surgery may be required.

Kidney Stone: Diet and Prevention

Kidney Stones can be prevented by bringing significant changes in the diet plan and lifestyle. Here are some tips as follows:

Drink more water

Drink plenty of water throughout the day to maintain adequate urine volume.

Increase use of vitamins

Increasing use of vitamins can increase the risk of certain types of kidney stones.

regular exercise

Obesity can increase the risk of kidney stones and hence maintain a healthy weight through regular exercise and a balanced diet.

sodium intake and avoid processed foods

High sodium levels can lead to calcium buildup in the urine, promoting stone formation. Limit your sodium intake and avoid processed foods.

excretion of calcium

Too much protein can increase the excretion of calcium and other substances in the urine, contributing to stone formation.

Eat more food and vegetables

Limit consumption of oxalate-rich foods, salt, and sugary food items. Eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in your diet.

To Conclude

In conclusion, kidney stones can be a painful and uncomfortable condition. Understanding the symptoms, causes, types, and treatment options can help us to take necessary precautions and to go for appropriate medical help when needed. Following a healthy lifestyle and good and healthy food and discipline will help in reducing the risk of kidney stones and maintaining the best kidney health. 

Remember, if you have any of these symptoms or suspect kidney stones, consult a doctor immediately for an accurate diagnosis and personalized/customized treatment plan. You can also consult any of the expert doctors at the Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center.


The information included here is only for knowledge-sharing purposes, and the blog is not intended to be a substitute for diagnosis, medical advice, or treatment by a healthcare professional. Every individual needs advice based on diagnosis and evidence, hence the reader should consult their doctor to determine the disease and any treatment must be taken under appropriate medical guidance.

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